+321Nutrients: Chemical substances found in food that are used by the body for growth and health

Macronutrient: 3 Macro Nutrient

1)      Carbohydrate 2) Fat 3)Protein

The word Macro means large. Macro nutrients prooovvvide you with calorie.

Calories: The amount of energy in a food . Abbreviation: Kg

Metabolism: The chemical changes that takes place in and out of cells.

All Macronutrients are expressed in grams. Carbohydreates has 4 K cal/gm.

Proteins has 4 K cal/gm

Fats has 9 K cal/gm.

If you lose or gain weight are due to carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

There is another one (4th) Alcohol which has 7 kg/gm but Alcohol is not a nutrient. We do not gain weight by alcohol.

Energy directly proportional to Macronutrients.

Energy come from burning MacroNutrients..

Micronutrients: Small amount .

1)      Vitamins 2) Minerals.

The Last Nutrient = water.

Altogether Six

1)carbohydrate 2) Fat 3) Protein 4)Vitamins  5) Minerals 6) Water.

Phytochemical : Colours and tastes found in fruits and vegetables.

High amount of phytochemicals = Lower disease.

If you eat more phytochemicals you will have less disease.

Fruits, vegetables, and whole grain has high amount of phytochemicals.

Frozen food are almost good as Fresh Food.

Enrich : The replacement of thiamine, riboflavin, Niacin, and or iron that lost when grains are processed.

Thiamin, Riboflavin and Niacin are B vitamins.

Fortified: The addition of one or more vitamins and or minerals to a food, product.

For example orange juice does not contain calcium naturally but calcium is added intentionally.

Nutrient Intake Standards: There are 2 of them.

1)RDA=Recommended Dietary Allowance (From 1940’s)

2)DRI = Dietary Refernece Intake (from last 6 yrs)

Digestion: The Mechanical and chemical processes whereby ingested food is converted to substances that can be absorbed by the intestinal tract and utilized by the body.

Absorption : The process by which nutrients and other substances are transferred from the digestive system into body fluids for transport throughout the body.

Enzymes: Are substances that speed up chemical reactions of macronutrients (Carbohydrate, , Fat and Protein)

1)      Mouth: is t he part of GI tract.

2)      Esophagus : connection b/w your mouth and stomach.

3)Peristalsis: Muscular action of the esophagus that pushes the food down to the stomach.

4) Stomach : Above your belly button. Sphincters(Valve) LES Lower esophageal sphincter.

5)Pyloric sphincter(PS) : Valve between stomach and small intestine.

Stomach : Lined with mucus, loads loads of muscle cells in every direction.

Food does not get absorbed in stomach lining. Only 20% Alcohol gets absorbed in the lining.

4)Small Intestine: Where 95 % of food and liquid gets absorbed. Pyloric sphincter is very very controlled. Lets the food go to small Intestine very very slowly. It called S Intestine because of its diameter.

Small projections hairline of small Intestine are called Villi.

If you take one villi -à If it has further more projection called microvilli.

Liver is not a part of GI tract it only assist in digesting.

Q. Name parts of GI tract.

The Liver produces Bile is a substance that helps breakdown of Fats.

Gall Bladder : Store Bile.


PANCREAS:Not part of GI, It secrets Enzymes to help breakdown food.

5) Large Intestine ( Colon) : In length shorter than small intestine but wider in diameter than small intestine but wider in diameter than small intestine.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Back up of food food in Esophagus.

When you get up in morningà drink water, so you have fluid in the system.

Fiber Foods: 1) All Legumes- Beans-all kinds of beans.

2 ) Cereals (Read Label)

Typical fruits have 5 gm of fiber.

2 fruità you have 10 gm of fiber.

Typical Fruit= 5gm of fiber.

Prune juice can be used as laxative ( But don’t make it as habit because it has chemicals in it )

Carbohydrates: Fruits, pastas, Anything w/ Flour , Potatoes, Rice, Anytype of sugar, Nuts, vegetables, Milk.

Name Food that contain carbohydrates

Ans: Fresher cheese (cheese which are not old)

Fruits, vegetables, Milk.

One thing bad about carbohydrates= it causes dental caries.

Only non plant source = Milk= The only animal product.

Glycemic Index= classifies carb to the extent they increase blood glucose levels. Any food that digested and absorbed quicly has a high Glycemic Index.

Baked Potato is the worst thing a diabetic can have.

Types of Carb:

1)      Simple Sugars: Require little or no digestion to be used by the body.

2)      Occur naturally in food or can be added to food for example simple sugars found in fruit naturally.

3)      Found in fruit and small amount in vegetables.

4)      When added to food, the food item is usually not a good source of nutrition and may lack vitamins, Minerals, Fiber and phytochemicals.

2 Different Simple Sugars:

a)      Monosaccharide: Mono stands for one, Three different Monosaccharide.

  1. Glucose
  2. Fructose (Fruit Sugar)
  3. Galactose ( Component in Breast Milk, not found in Food)

b)      Disaccharides : 3 Different types

a)      Glucose + Glucose= Maltose

b)      Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose

c)       Glucose + Galactose = Lactose (Milk Sugar)

Maltose found in liquor products.

Sucrose found in everything. Sucrose is typical white sugar.

Any Sugar in milk product is lactose.

Lactose= trouble digesting, you have low level of Lactase ( Enzyme used to digest Lactose)

You can buy in pharmacyà its not a drug, its enzyme to digest Lactose.

2.)  Complex Sugars or Complex Carbs:

Polysaccharides : Poly means many. 3 sugars  to 3 thousands.

3 different types of polysaccharides.

a)Starch b) Glycogen c) Fiber

Starch : Polysaccharides found in plants ex. Corn, pasta, bread, Rice.

Glycogen : is a storage form of sugar in animals and humans. Humans store in liver and your skeletal muscle.

Fiber : Two Types

a)      Soluble

b)      Insoluble

Soluble: Gets absorbed from your large intestine.

Insoluble: Never gets absorbed,

–help you go to bathroom.

–help you get rid of waste smoothly.

–Banana à have a chemically —Bananas constipate you, Banana  is good for settling stomach upset.

Soluble is the inside part which has network of veins. Insoluble ones are the outside part.

Beans – very high fiber.

Peas- have a good amount of fiber.

Most oatmeal does not have fiber in itself but fibers are added.

Plantains have lots of soluble fibers.

Plantain seeds (Metamucil).

Fibers are in the seeds.

Plantains wont constipate you but plantains don’t. Bananas have very special chemicals which constipate peoples.

Start eating fruits, Vegetables and Fibers.

Whole wheat bread.

Brown rice= phytochemicals. They will fight against cancer.

Fiber is like a Broom inside your intestine. Fiber is resistant to human digestive enzymes, It helping to move feces from your body more quickly.

Carrots ( Very Good)

Recommended Fiber Intake : 28 gm for woman / day.

35 gm / day for men.

Functions of carbohydrates:

1)      An energy source providing 4 calorie/ gm

2)      It’s a protein sparer (If you don’t eat enough carbohydrate, body will eat muscle to make protein)

3)      Its needed for fat Metabolism

Carbohydrate Intake: 45%-65% of your Daily food intake should come from carbohydrates.


-General Nutrition Facts

–GI Tract


Carbohydrates do not make you fat. It carries exact amount of energy as protein. Carbohydrates has 4 k cal/grams.


Lipid : Describes generally fat, oil or cholesterol

Triglyceride: Fat that you eat and fat that is stored on the body and also the fat stored in the blood stream.

Fat stored in 2 places a) Under Skin à Subcutaneous fat b) Visceral Fatà Kidney, pancreas etc. Fat that cushioned or surrounds internal organ of the body.

Daily calories from fat should be between 20-35% of Total calories but its more important to eat healthy Fat.

A)     Unsaturated Food: Liquid at room temperature. Good and healthy Fat-à All liquid oils

1)      Mono Unsaturated à C-C bond very good

2)      Poly Unsaturated à C-C



But if you have C-H hydrogen Bonds its not good examples Mono Unsaturated= Oilve oil, Canola, peanut.

Poly Unsaturated: Cotton Seed oil, Soybean, Sun flower, sesame oil.

Essential Fats/ Fatty Acidsà Omega-6, Omega-3

A kind of oil called alpha-linoleic acid omega-3 oil.

Found in fatty fish, walnuts, flax seeds.

Smart Balanced milk have DHA and EPA. Both DHA and EPA has lots of C-C Bonds which omega-3

Fatty Fish:

3 ounce of Salmon fish has upto 2000 mg of omegas

3 ounces Trout has 420 mg (not a fatty fish)

3 ounces of Shrimp has 270 mg

3 ounce of Tuna has 10 mg

Salmon has a very high calories.

DHA and EPA decreases Blood Pressure

.”            .”                        Risk of Stroke

.”                 .”                    Risk of Heart Disease.

.”                 .”                     general inflammation in the body.

.”                 .” Clear out Plaque Formation.

Unhealthy Fat ( Saturated Fat):

Animal fat eg. Beef products (Burger, Steak) Pork Products, Lambs, Milk and Milk Products, Cheese, Yoghurt, Ice Cream.

Linked to cancer, Heart disease.

Plant Products à Palm, anything with palm.

Avocado à (300 calories) 25 % saturated fat.

Coconut oil is 89% Saturated Fat.

Coconut Milk is 82.5 % Saturated Fat.

Coconut Water is OK

Saturated Fats has lots of Hydrogen( They are saturated with Hydrogen)
Saturated Fat stimulates your Liver to produce cholesterol.

Partially Hydrogenated Oil:

Unsaturated oil does not have long shelf life.

Take a cotton seed oil(unsaturated oil) and pump hydrogen in it-à Increases shelf lifeà it will last longerà It will go Rancid.

Other Name -à Trans Fat

Chemically turned to Saturated Fat.

Canola oil, saturated oil as it is OK

But chemically modified and turned to partially hydrogenated canola oil is not good.

Cholestrol: Cholestrol is only found in Animal Products. Cholestrol contain no calories. Cholestrol is not a nutrient. Cholestrol is also made whether you eat or not.

Highest % of cholesterol I foun in egg yolk. More than 200 mg of cholesterol in egg yolk.

Recommendation of cholesterol intake is 300mg/day.

Lipoprotein (Lipo=Fat)

Fat attacged to a protein in your blood stream.

(Happy) High Density Lipoprotein (LDL)= Bad Cholestrol.

(Lousy) Light Density Lipoprotein(LDL)=Bad Cholestrol à Clogging arteries(Injuring your arteries.

Triglyceride Fat floating around your Blood stream.

Total cholesterol = Sum total of all your lipoprotein.

Things you should know:

Blood pressure, HDL, LDL.

Food that contain Cholestrol:

All animal products, Any type of shell fish(lobster, scallops and shrimps-but they don’t have high fat),

Calories are in fat but cholesterol don’t have calories.

Egg Yolk (Most concentrated in cholesterol) If you have LDL don’t eat egg yolk, Not skimmed Milkà whole milk,

Milk type


8g*9=72 72/150 48% Fat ½=saturated fat 33 mg  
2% 5 g*9=45 calories 45/21 37% Fat

½ of that Saturated Fat

18 mg  
10% 3g*9=27 27/102 26%fat 10mg  
Skim 0 fat 86   4mg  

8 g in one glass

45 fat calories

2%= 2% of the wt. of the container

Advice: Better to change to Fat Free Milk.

Functions of Fat:


  1. Source of Energy yielding 9 cal/gm
  2. Provide the body with insulation. Fat under your=Subcutaneous Fat.
  3. It cushions your internal organs (Visceral Fat)
  4. Certain Fat Soluble vitamins are absorbed only with Fat.

Proteins and Amino Acids:

Proteins is not stored on the human body for use as an energy source.

Hair, Finger Nails, Skin cells, Blood(Hemoglobin), Hormones, Enzy,es, Entire Immune system. Head to toe in part are made of protein, even your Bones, Muscles.

We lose protein everyday, we replace by eating protein.

Egg whites= High Proteins and No calories.

Proteins found in Animal product to large extent, Plants in less amount,

No Protein in pure oil and Fruits.

Protein Requirement:

0.8 gms.  per kg of Body wt. per day

Body wt./2.205= Body wt in kg (Result)

Result * 0.8= No. of proteins Needed per day.

Amino Acid: The individual components of Protein ( Building blocks of Protein)

Insulin= Hormone that helps to control the level of Blood Sugar in your Blood Stream.

Insulin= is 48 AA ( amino acids).

If you swallow insulin it breaks into 48 different AA, SO there is no use of swallowing Insulin.
So you have to inject the Insulin.

Amino Acids: 20 Amino Acids. From this 20 AA you can create infinite amount of Proteins (like dictionary, from 26 letters you can make so many words)

Protein For Repair from Head to Toe.

Amount of proteins ( like dictionary, from 26 letters you can make so many words)

Among 20 AA, 11 are non essential, we don’t need to eat them, the body makes them.

9 are considered essential, we must eat them.

Animal Products contain all 9 essential Amino Acids.

Plant products do not. Soy Bean has all 9.

Protein Function:

  1. Body cell repair and maintainenance.
  2. Protein is the structural part of multiple Body  components.
  3. It’s the major components of immune functions, and antibody formation.
  4. Function of protein is not to provide energy on a given day only 2-5% of protein consumed is used for energy.
  5. Forming Glucose from Muscle. If you don’t consume enough carbohydrate to supply glucose for your liver (Glucose stored as Glycogen in your liver ) Your liver will be forced to make glucose from Amino Acids.
  6. Takes your muscle to make glucose.


Vegetarians have low risk of heart disease.

Persons who consume only plant products= Vegan.

Vegans will not wear silk, leather, will not eat honey (fruits, vegetable, grain products, seeds)

Lacto Vegan: will consume Milk product of cow, not killing an animal.

Lacto-ovo vegetarian: Milk products, Eggs, Plant.

Eggs from chcken which are not fertilized by Roaster cow not killed.

Vegetarians have to be very clever and wise creating diet with how to get enough proteins because they are not consuming Animals.

Q1. Is it possible for a vegan to consume cholesterol or saturated Fat?

Cholesterol= Not Saturated Fat= Yes ( Palm, Avocado)

Q2. Is it possible for a vegan to gain body weight?

If you eat too many calories you will gain weight.

Food Allergies:

Consequence of Food Allergies from Rashes to Death.

Only treatment is to eliminate that food from his/her diet.

Allergic reaction by peanuts can be triggered by kissing, Breathing, peanut, vapors, skin eruption, GI.


There are 8

90% of all food allergies are due to this:

  1. Milk
  2. Soy
  3. Peanuts(Legume)
  4. Tree Nuts (wal nut, Macadamian nuts)
  5. Sea Food ( Shell Fish0
  6. Fish(all other types of fish)
  7. Eggs
  8. Wheat.

Food Allergen labeling Act of 19th Century labels this and bolded in label of all food? If it is used.

Celiac Disease = wheat gluten in Autism Spectrum.

Wheat Gluten Food= Barley, oats, rye, Maple syrup.


They don’t provide energy but work together with macronutrient.

Macronutrient wouldn’t able to provide energy if you don’t have vitamins and minerals.

Vitamins don’t have calories.

You get vitamins from all foodà plants and animals.

Two different Groups of vitamins.

Fat Soluble Water Soluble
Better Absorbed in the body with Fats

They are attached to Fat

4 different Fat Soluble vitamins ADEK

Stored in liver or Bidy Fat

ADE stored in the body for long period but not K

RDA ( recommendations) for vitamins keep on changing.



Antioxidants: Chemicals which have been found invitro to prevent or repair damage to Body Cells done by Free Radicals(Bad Guy)

Antioxidant fight Free Radicals.

Cells in a body made of many many atoms.

Cells get crazy, Changes from one form to another. Keeps doing that and the cells get very crazy.


Free Radicals contributes to the Aging Process.

If you have too many free radicals oyur body gets crazy.

Smoking, pollutants, Dry cleaning fumes, photographers exposed continuously to chemicals.

Contents of cell can leak out, that’s how peoples can get heart disease, cancer.

When you have antioxidants, cell is very peaceful.

Higher the intake of Fruits and vegetables ∞ Lesser chance of developing cancer.

Blue berries and pomegranate= very expensive, but all fruits have phytochemicals, so apples, orange, will do the work.

Positives chemicals in Fruits, vegetables and Fish outweigh the Negative.

There is not enough research to prove that Organic product is better than Non-Organic.

There are 14 vitamins discovered so far, we will emphasize in ADEK

Vitamin A:

Found in all Animal Producs.

Deficiency leading cause of blindness in 3rd world countries.

Vitamin A is readily available.

Vitamin A precursor: Beta-carotene, Most widely researched antioxidant. Found mostly in plants, eg. Carrots, cantaloupe, peaches, Brocolli.

Carotenoids= About 50 which can be converted to vitamin A.

Carotenoids substance found in fruits and vegetable that can be Antioxidants and about 50 of them can be converted to vitamin A.

Eat all varieties of Fruits and vegetables. Adding lettuce, tomatoes, onions to sandwich.


Functions of Vitamin A: Need for Reproduction.

2. Day and Night Vision.

3. Bone Development.

4. Cancer Prevention ( Due to Antioxidant effect)

Vitamin D: VitD is stored in body for long time, so if expose in summer it might last for winter.

Not found in too many foods. Found in Shrimp, salmon.

Its added to breakfast cereal, and in milk.

Milk itself does not contain Vitamin D.

We need it in regular basis.

We get it from sunlight B rays of sun combine with cholesterol under th skin to form vitamin D.

Fubnctions of Vitamin D.

  1. Vitamin D must be present for calcium to be absorbed.
  2. Vitamin D combats chronic Inflammation.

Vitamin E:
Vitamin E is mainly known for its antioxidant effects.

Cell membrane is made of fat.

Vitamin E is Fat Soluble Vitamin E acts as a major antioxidant to stop the damage of free radicals.

Vitamin E has great reputations found in all poly unsaturated oils.Food source= whole grains, liquid oils, soy bean, safflower, cotton seed, corn oil.

Vitamin K: Not readyily stored in the body.

In our intestine naturally growing bacteria.

Bacteria in the intestine can make it.

Vit K is needed for Blood Clotting.

Two Vitamins can be made automatic= Vit K  and Vit D.

Water Soluble Vitamins:

B Complex Vitamins à 8 of them

  1. Thiamin (B1 formerly called)
  2. Niacin(B3)
  3. Riboflavin (B2)
  4. B6
  5. B12
  6. Folate (Folic Acid)
  7. Biotin
  8. Pantothenic Acid.


Work w/ Macronutrients.

Macro can’t function w/o vitamins.

Another addition of vitamin B. Some organization call it vitamin B, others call it 9) Choline ( B- Like vitamin)

Vitamin C:

Water Soluble vitamin.

Its major antioxidant but vitamin C, more with water part of cell.

Important Fact: There is no proof that vitamin C shortens cold.


  1. Needed for wound healing.
  2. Its Antioxidant.
  3. Vitamin C enhances iron absorption. Check iron for tiredness or sleepy condition.

Sources of Vitamin

Citrusà Orange, Lemons, Green Papper, Red Pepper

Orange, Mango.

If you don’t like one type of fruit, eat the other –Assortments.

Lack Of Folate  Spina Bifida (Neural Tube Defect) -à Problem with spinal cord, paralyzed, or Brain not developed properly-à Baby dies within a day.

Pregnant women must consume folate but must consult Doctor to consume right amount of Folate.




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